Documentos en Desarrollo

En prensa


Capítulo en Libro: “El paralelismo consciente en el derecho de la competencia”

Resumen: Las prácticas conscientemente paralelas son un tema central en el derecho de la competencia colombiano. En América Latina no hay ninguna autoridad que haya proferido tantas decisiones en relación con este tipo de acuerdo anticompetitivo como lo ha hecho la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio (SIC). A pesar de que la autoridad de competencia ha decantado el concepto del paralelismo consciente y ha delimitado el estándar de prueba de esta modalidad de acuerdo, aún existen dudas sobre su tratamiento en Colombia debido a la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado. La alta corte ha establecido en sus sentencias una sub-regla según la cual el mero paralelismo de precios sería prueba suficiente de un cartel. Dicha posición choca con la teoría microeconomía convencional según la cual la similitud de precios entre dos o más empresas no necesariamente es consecuencia de un acuerdo ilegal. También contrasta con la doctrina de la SIC que, desde hace dieciocho años, ha mantenido que el mero paralelismo no es suficiente para probar la existencia de un cartel. Este escrito estudia el paralelismo consciente en el derecho de la competencia a nivel comparado e incluye las principales jurisdicciones de América Latina, Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea.

Palabras clave: carteles, colusión tácita, práctica conscientemente paralela, paralelismo consciente, paralelismo de precios, prácticas concertadas

Está programado para ser publicado en Ortiz (ed.) “Derecho de la Competencia”, U. Externado de Colombia.


En progreso


Artículo: “Challenges to competition and innovation in digital platform markets: Insights from Latin American cases”, con Manuel Abarca

Abstract: In recent years, antitrust agencies from all over the globe have published reports, studies and guidelines about competition challenges associated with digital markets. Some of these agencies have also enforced competition laws in cases of collusion and abuse of dominance in such markets. What about Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? While enforcement activities in digital markets have been exceptional, several competition authorities of the region have assessed competition and innovation challenges in merger cases and through advocacy activities. The latter has not been limited to the publication of market studies or reports, competition authorities have also participated with contributions in regulatory processes (e.g. associated with the regulation of platform economies). This paper examines the challenges to competition and innovation in digital platform markets that have been identified by LAC’s antitrust authorities. The article explores the decisions taken by these authorities in the context of enforcement activities (antitrust and mergers) and competition advocacy (reports and opinions in regulatory processes). Additionally, the paper aims at identifying the similarities and differences between the enforcement and advocacy activities conducted by antitrust authorities in Latin America with respect to the work of their peers in other continents. The research traced the activities of 27 national competition authorities in 21 LAC countries, but cases in digital platform markets we found in over half of these countries. The document explores in detail decisions and activities from eight jurisdictions during the period 2015 – 2020. The research includes 37 cases of antitrust enforcement (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay), merger control (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico), and competition advocacy (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay).

Keywords: antitrust, competition, innovation, digital markets, multi-sided platforms, Latin America

Entrada de blog que comparte avances del artículo aquí.


Artículo: “Derecho de la competencia en América Latina y el Caribe: Evolución y principales retos”

Resumen: Casi todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe cuentan con leyes de competencia y la mayoría tienen autoridades que efectivamente implementan dichas legislaciones. Sin embargo, las trayectorias de las 29 autoridades nacionales de competencia de la región que operan en 23 jurisdicciones países son divergentes. No existe un sistema monolítico de protección de la competencia en la región: hay variación en términos de trayectorias históricas, contextos económicos y diseños institucionales. Además, hay diferencias en relación con la capacidad de implementación de las autoridades de la competencia y de los entornos institucionales y políticos en los que operan. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer al lector una mirada a vuelo de pájaro de los derechos y las políticas de la competencia en América Latina y el Caribe. El texto explica aspectos básicos sobre el desarrollo histórico de esta materia, expone los tipos de sistemas de implementación de derecho de la competencia, y destaca algunas las principales diferencias así como las tendencias comunes de los regímenes de la región. Finalmente, presenta una mirada prospectiva, con énfasis en los principales retos para la región.

Palabras clave: derecho de la competencia, política de competencia, América Latina y el Caribe, autoridades de competencia


Artículo: “Competition policy, regulation and development in Latin America: Does competition advocacy join the dots?”, con Andrés F. Suárez

Abstract: Regulatory processes and debates are often informed by antitrust agencies that advocate against potentially anticompetitive governmental regulations. The competition advocacy function undertaken by these agencies may take the form of submissions, comments, reviews and regulatory impact reports of proposed regulations. While these opinions are usually not binding for sectoral regulators, the participation of competition agencies may have significant influence over regulatory processes. Do antitrust agencies consider economic development, directly or indirectly, as a guiding criterion for competition advocacy in the area of regulation? What does economic development mean for these agencies? This article discusses the relationships that exist between regulation, competition policy and economic development in Latin America. A case study approach was used to answer the research questions, analyzing the cases of three countries that have implemented competition advocacy: Colombia, Chile and El Salvador. The research examined the reports filed and/or published by the competition agencies of these countries, using text analysis methods, and processes data collected from interviews of competition agencies’ former and current officials. The study used qualitative analysis in order to gain insights into the meaning and role of “economic development” in the regulatory processes in which competition agencies perform reviews of proposed regulations.


Artículo:Metering Antitrust Authorities: Performance Measurement in the Americas

Abstract: This paper discusses how performance measurement of competition authorities is implemented and whether these assessments influence enforcement, advocacy and managerial decisions. The paper studies 36 competition authorities from 25 national jurisdictions and two supranational jurisdictions in the Americas. The data was collected through questionnaires answered by officials from competition authorities, interviews to directors, advisors or justices of the agencies or specialised tribunals, and from reports and statistics published in the organisations’ websites. The paper reports that the majority of the competition authorities are subject to some form of external evaluation and most of them also carryout internal performance measurements. However, over 22% of the competition authorities do not disclose online data of their self-assessments. Activity-based indicators are used more frequently than other types of indicators, such as managerial or impact-based indicators. Only four competition authorities regularly calculate the overall consumer benefits generated by their interventions and few authorities measure the rate of judicial reversal of their decisions. The majority of the surveyed officials answered that performance measurements influenced the strategic decision-making of the authority, but there were officials from 20% of these organisations who acknowledged that the criteria used for self-assessment were unclear. External assessments appear to influence the competition authorities’ agendas and incentive legal/institutional reforms.

Keywords: antitrust, enforcement, competition authorities, performance measurement, public management